Wittgenstein’s Private Language Argument
TheRoutledge CambridgeModern Language and PhilosophyCourse
TheRoutledge CambridgeModern Language and PhilosophyCourse offers a penetrating analysis of how the private language argument helps to sustain the idea that there are ‘two quite different worlds’, that is to say language is a private thing and can therefore be dealt with only by means of a private language argument.
The second chapter ‘Of Significance’ by Patrick Stewart criticizes the view that there are two quite different worlds, one in which we exist and the other in which we do not exist’, for this view seems to contradict the notion of divinity itself. “Moreover, it is questionable whether claims to the effect that there are two worlds, and that God exists in the world of men, are proven by such a definition” (Stampe). Yet while this may be said to an individualistic level it is not to be said to a community level as the argument then harkens back to Calvin’s belief in the enlightenment.
The third chapter ‘Of Idea’ deals with the concept of idea, or word. This is pertaining to the notion of word itself. Its argument employs a definition originated by A.V.analysis: “A word is an idea of what is represented by a word” (oby email). เกี่ยวหี How can a word be considered to be an idea? According to the author, ” Any word is the symbolic representation of some idea: and it is only by being able to represent more ideas that we can understand more fully what it is that we are trying to express” (yscrubble). This definition as well as provided by many others can be found throughout the text.
The fourth chapter is that of feeling. It starts out by saying that “We cannot stir with anger against words as against the ideas they represent” (briefly mentions that this is against laziness). It goes on to cite various dispositions, including disinterest, fondness, hatred, and hope. It also says that these desires are obstacles to the development of ideal ideas. หีนักเรียน In the end it exclaims that “The disease of writers is more serious than the literary laziness that is the Backbone of criticism” (scrubs).
The fifth chapter is that of speech. It starts out by saying that “words hold within them ideas as well as categories of feeling” (scrubs). It goes on to add that the attack on words balloons into an attack on language itself. It says that,
words are the cement of our being, the essential link, the primary fact, the primary need, ชนโรง the sustaining element of all experience.
This chapter was more in depth in comparison to the others, since it deal with a wide range of feelings and inter- relates these feelings to ideas. In the end it upholds the idea that good writing is frustrating and opposed to.
The sixth chapter is that of memory. It starts out by saying that memory is a compromise between forgetting and remembering. The compromise is that when we forget we are helpless, and when we remember we are empowered. สวิงกิ้ง It then goes on to add that sometimes we lose because we don’t understand, and that sometimes we fail to use our memory properly.
The last chapter is that of concentration. It deals with something that Watson discovered as the somatic cell of the mind. It was found that our bodies have rhythmic responses to inputs. อะนิเมะ The body is active 24 hours a day. We can achieve such a state of relaxation by means of music. The chapter consists of several case studies and one of the case studies is that of the musician known as John Christie.
The intrinsic values of the book are those that embodies the idea of applying the basic tenants of ethics to the creative process. It encourages professionals to be ethical in their work because it provides a seal for doing the right thing. The book also advises against judging the creative process by its fruits and against restricting creativity for the sake of Doing the Correct Thing. It also suggests that artists should not necessarily seek the representation of the form, but should instead be inspired by the form and structure of the form.
John Christie as an example of someone who had applied extensive research and maths to the music he created, wrote in his book, ivelyements for different types of scales and the composer’s use of 7 different scales for his music. The book contains a description of how he led his band in playing bridge positions on the same scale. It also details other composers’ use of minor scales and the differences in their approach.
The bottom line is that through the book I discovered how to apply scales and music theory to music that I was into, giving me direct experience of both the advantages and disadvantages of learning theory at the piano. The outcome was a knowledge of music that had a significant influence on my everyday life.